Mastering Phonics: A Key to Reading is a great resource. It can teach you the basics of reading and phonics. It discusses the differences between systematic and non-systematic phonics instruction, the advantages and disadvantages of teaching phonics, and how to teach phonics to ELLs.
Basics of phonics instruction
Reading phonics instruction can be a vital part of a child’s education. When taught correctly, this instruction can help all children improve their reading skills. However, it can be challenging to teach phonics. There are many basic approaches to teaching phonics.
Phonics instruction aims to equip students with the knowledge necessary to decode new words and identify letters of the alphabet. This knowledge allows them to focus on the meaning of text.
Instruction in phonics should be given in a structured, systematic manner. Children learn about the relationship between letters and sounds through drills, practice, and repetition. A phonics program should provide opportunities to write and spell words. It should be appropriate to the student’s age and level of reading.
Despite the benefits of phonics instruction, there is not an absolute difference between the different phonics instructional approaches. The differences vary on the unit of analysis, how letter-sound combinations are represented, and the approach to teaching.
The best way to teach phonics is through systematic phonics instruction. This type of instruction provides students with a structured set of strategies to read and write. This type of instruction is beneficial for those who are at high risk of learning disabilities.
Blended phonics is also known as synthetic phonics. It teaches students how to combine the sounds of the letters. These phonics programs were created to help low-achieving students become better readers.
A systematic phonics instruction program introduces the letters and sounds in a logical, sequential sequence. Students then practice this skill by linking individual letters to sounds. This technique is especially helpful for children who are struggling to decipher words.
Systematic versus non-systematic phonics instruction
In the English education system, systematic versus non-systematic phonics instruction for reading is a debate that rages. A plethora of studies have analyzed the efficacy of different instructional methods. However, very few studies have shown phonics to be an overall superior method.
The primary benefit of systematic phonics instruction is that it is effective at increasing children’s comprehension. This is because they are able to better understand the meanings and purpose of written words.
Unlike phonics instruction, unsystematic phonics training does not result in improved comprehension. Systematic phonics is not as effective as whole-word approaches. It is not a panacea to struggling readers.
Numerous meta-analyses have examined the relative effects of systematic phonetics. The results range from moderate to large. Proponents of systematic phonics claim that it does not improve reading outcomes for most struggling readers.
Many of the most compelling results were actually found in studies that did no comparison to a combination of methods. These studies are often cited by advocates of phonics instruction. However, they were flawed. Some of the most noteworthy studies were not included in the meta-analyses, while others were biased or poorly characterized by the authors.
For example, the NRP (2000) meta-analysis looked at the effects of systematic phonics compared to no phonics. The NRP found that systematic phonics had a significant effect, but the statistical significance of the effect was not reached.
Similarly, Camilli et al. (2003) found a similar effect. Their analysis used a multilevel modeling approach to calculate the impact of phonics.
Levy et. al. While Torgerson and al. supported systematic phonics. (2002) found a similar effect.
Instruction in phonics is effective
The efficacy of phonics instruction for reading has been examined in a number of studies. While many of the studies have yielded mixed results, the majority have shown some kind of benefit. While improved spelling and fluency are the most popular benefits of phonics instruction, there are many other benefits.
Children who are at risk of a reading disability can benefit from phonics instruction. It can also benefit students who are learning to read in a foreign language. This is especially true when the program is creative and entertaining.
Another important skill associated with phonics instruction is the ability to automatically apply phonics skills to text. This ability can improve comprehension and oral reading.
A variety of qualitative and quantitative studies have evaluated the effectiveness of systematic phonics instruction. In the qualitative studies, children received one-on-one tutoring for systematic phonics. These studies used a single set words with similar rhymes. They compared systematic phonics to a non-trained control.
A meta-analysis of the effects of systematic phonics and no phonics in reading found a moderate overall effect. Effect sizes ranged from 0.41 to 0.27.
However, a larger effect was found among the younger readers. This result is significant. As a result, a Primary School Certificate, which assesses a child’s decoding skills, was introduced.
Researchers have shown that phonics has a greater benefit than whole-word approaches. But it should not be taken as a universal truth. Many phonics programs require teachers to have a high level of linguistic expertise.
Some phonics programs can even decrease teacher motivation and interest, which could affect their ability to teach. That is why it is so important for teachers to learn how to assess the effectiveness of a program.
Effectiveness of phonics instruction using ELLs
Since 2000, studies have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of phonics instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs). Studies are mixed, with most studies having a quasi-experimental design. Many studies have been conducted in non English-speaking countries. However, a few studies were conducted in native English-speaking nations.
One study, the NRP’s (2000) meta-analysis, compared systematic phonics to nonsystematic phonics. It concluded that systematic phonics was more effective than unsystematic phonics. However, the study failed to identify the most important benefit of systematic phonics.
A more recent meta-analysis, published by Thorius and Sullivan (2013), assessed the effect of phonics instruction with ELLs in a Response to Intervention setting. They found that systematic phonics had a significant, but not insignificant, effect on comprehension of non-word reading. However, it had a moderate effect on comprehension of word reading.
Another meta-analysis, based on a review of 12 experimental studies, investigated the efficacy of phonics instruction with ELLs. Among the studies, the smallest effects were in the area of phonemic awareness.
Other research, though, did not find a significant benefit of phonics instruction with ELLs. Phonics results were very similar to other interventions such as phonics programs or medical treatment.
One ostensible benefit of phonics instruction with ELs is that it improves the effectiveness of phonics in the long term. The overall effect size was large, with a range of 0.32 to 1.20. That is, systematic phonics’ effects were significant because there was more intervention.
Despite the flurry of hype, however, there is no clear evidence that systematic phonics is more effective than other methods. Teachers should therefore evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of phonics instruction based on specific outcomes such as correct word pronunciations and lexical access to new words.
Methods to teach phonics
Phonics is a set skills that children learn when they begin reading. This knowledge allows them to develop fluency in reading, which helps them read faster, more accurately, and with more expression.
Many research studies have shown that students must have a good grasp of phonics to become confident readers. There are many ways to teach phonics. Analytic phonics is the most popular phonics method.
Synthetic phonics is a method of teaching which focuses on the phonemes and how they can be blended to create words. It is also referred to as the “blending and building” approach.
Analytic phonics focuses on breaking down words into the component parts. The first step in this approach is to isolate the phoneme. For example, in the word “water,” the phoneme is w. After identifying the water, the child may talk about how the sound w is similar to other words, such as w. Then, the student will blend w with other sounds to form a word.
A systematic phonics program teaches letters and sounds in a particular sequence. The program explains to students which sounds correspond with which letter patterns. During the course of this program, students will master all 44 phonemes. Once they have done this, the systematic phonics program will move them on to the next combination.
Regardless of the phonics approach, it is important that the instruction is always in the context of the literature. In order to teach phonics, students should have the opportunity to identify words in meaningful stories.
Students can also use the images in the surrounding sentences to infer the meaning of the words. This is especially useful for students who are not familiar with the vocabulary contained in a book.